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Neurology is the branch of medicine concerned with the nervous system and its interactions with the body's other systems. Because the nervous system is complex, understanding its disorders in neurology can seem difficult.




The basic unit of the nervous system is a highly specialized cell, also known as a neuron. Its main purpose is to transport messages from one part of the body to another in the form of nerve impulses. Because of their highly specialized function, neurons have certain special characteristics. First they are extremely long lived. According to clinical neurology they can live and function for over 100 years. This is very important since neurons are also amitotic. This means that they do not replicate or reproduce. As per neurology most 1 year old humans have approximately the maximum number of neurons that they will ever have in their lives, about 1011-12. From this point, humans tend to loose about 200,000 neurons a day. Neurons are very active and so have a high metabolic rate, requiring large amounts of oxygen and glucose as per clinical neurology. Any disorder with in the functioning of these neurons can cause a lot of disease that are mentioned below. (fortunecity2007 [online])




One of the major diseases Neurology has to deal with is Alzheimer disease (AD). It is the most common cause of dementia, which is an acquired cognitive and behavioral impairment of sufficient severity to markedly interfere with social and occupational functioning. Neurology has to treat the patients suffering from AD that is most commonly present with insidiously progressive memory loss, to which other spheres of cognitive impairment are added over several years. After memory loss occurs, patients may also have language disorders (example, anomie, progressive aphasia) and impairment in their visuospatial skills and executive functions. To take care of these additional symptoms is also a major job for the neurology department.


Another challenge for Neurology is Hydrocephalus. As per clinical neurology, it can be defined broadly as a disturbance of formation, flow, or absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that leads to an increase in volume occupied by this fluid in the central nervous system (CNS). This condition of neurology disorder also could be termed a hydrodynamic disorder of CSF. Acute hydrocephalus occurs over days, sub acute over weeks and chronic over months or years. Conditions such as cerebral atrophy and focal destructive lesions of neurology disorders also lead to an abnormal increase of CSF in CNS according to clinical neurology. In these situations, loss of cerebral tissue leaves a vacant space that is filled passively with CSF. Such conditions are not the result of a hydrodynamic disorder and therefore are not classified as hydrocephalus. An older misnomer used to describe these conditions was hydrocephalus ex vacuum.(Brubeck 1996)




With increase in the technological advancements and up roaring of micro biology and nano sciences, the neurology is also all geared up to take new challenges and go deep inside the root causes of the basic ailments. Finding the root cause is the first step in finding the solution of the problem. Neurology has a giant step to leap with the help of these technological developments and cure the patients with the various neurology disorders that are different from other types of disorders that are normally macroscopic in nature.




Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience by Roger A. Brubeck


URL:[online source]. Last accessed 6 November 2007

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