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Guide on How to Write University Essays, Courseworks, Assignments and Dissertations

Developmental Psychology/Child Psychology

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Review

Developmental Psychology or Child Psychology is the study of the way the human individual begins developing, from birth, or time spent in the womb, through early childhood and into adolescence and adulthood. In Developmental Psychology, it is thought that the growth process or awakening of the new born to his or her senses, acquiring memory, experience, learning, personality traits, and language, all follow universal patterns that are the same for every human individual. In the areas where these patterns are limited or beset by variables, those conditions can be ascertained and understood through study with the methods of Developmental Psychology and Child Psychology. As such, an understanding of child psychology is important for parenting, education, health, and society.

 

The leading proponent and developer of Child Psychology is Jean Piaget, the French psychologist. Drawing upon the work or Rousseau, and other Enlightenment thinkers who reflected on the nature of the child and human development, Piaget propounded a Developmental Psychology with a theory of stages in childhood that could be studied and marked with unique factors of cultural acquisition (Funderstanding, 2007 [online]). The awareness of these stages could lead to a more efficient means of rearing and educating the child according to the standards of the society at large (Huitt, W., & Hummel, J., 2007 [online]). Much is made of the debate between “nature” and “nurture” in Child Psychology and Developmental Psychology. Researchers in Child Psychology must determine which characteristics of human development are arisen from a biological, genetic, and instinctual basis, and which are sculpted and formed by learning, experience, reaction, and feed-back in the environment by the individual. While most practitioners of Child Psychology draw a middle line between the two factors, acknowledging the influence of both learning and inherent biological factors, there are sub schools within both views of Developmental Psychology that propound more exclusive tenets.

 

The Transpersonal Psychology movement, led by Abraham Maslow and Stanislav Grof, expanded the traditional Child Psychology view of human development to include time spent in the womb. Grof in particular posited several stages of Developmental Psychology related to time in the womb, the beginning of the birth contractions, entry into the birth canal, and emergence. According to the Transpersonal Psychology School, these experiences of the fetus and new born are experienced by the human individual according to the sense awareness and understanding present at that time, and exist as deep behavioral patterns in the unconscious realms of the human mind (Dr. Nelson Soucasaux, 2007 [online]). They may also lead to the development of personality characteristics or character traits in the human individual, as they predate early infancy and childhood development, and form a mental foundation for further research in Developmental Psychology and Child Psychology.

 

Other Child Psychologists and researchers in Developmental Psychology investigate the way the infant perceives the world, explores, and develops language. Many investigations have been undertaken through Developmental Psychology into the role of conditioning and instinct in early childhood, and how it effects the later development of the individual. As the variable and long term nature of these studies is difficult to conduct, Practitioners of Child Psychology or Developmental Psychology must limit their inquiry generally to specific topics that lead to the improvement of infant health and childhood education. The over-all goal of Child Psychology or Developmental Psychology would be an understanding of the way early childhood experiences lead to the development of intelligence, art, music, creative faculties, honesty, integrity, perseverance, and other values cherished by the society at large. Parents are encouraged to research Child Psychology and Developmental Psychology to have a better understanding of the patterns and situations that repeat in childhood development.

 

References 

1. Funderstanding Piaget (Article).

 URL http://www.funderstanding.com/piaget.cfm. Copyright: 1998 - 2001.

 Last accessed 12 November 2007.

 

2.  Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's theory of Cognitive Development.  Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University.

URL http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/ col/cogsys/piaget.html. Last accessed 14 November 2007.

 

3. Soucasaux, Dr. Nelson. Stanislav Grof's Perinatal Matrixes of the Unconscious and Women's Medicine.

URL  http://www.mum.org/sougrof.htm. Last accessed 12 November 2007.

S/PS/108. How do cases of severe deprivation inform our understanding of the development of language in typical children?

S/PS/103. Compare, contrast and evaluate the nativist and empiricist views of infant perception

S/PS/95. How do we remember 'what is where' and 'where is what'?

S/PS/94. A review on the factors that may hinder a legitimate transition to adulthood, for adolescents that experience differing forms of social exclusion

C/PS/38. PSYCHOLOGY EDUCATIONALIST PERSPECTIVE IN FOCUS

S/PS/82. Piaget's Theories and Cognitive Development

C/PS/33. Critical Review of Baron-Cohen's (2002) Extreme Male Brain Theory of Autism

S/PS/105. Individual Differences are the product of an interaction between biological and social influences. Discuss

S/PS/76. Temperament in Context: Infant temperament moderates the relationship between perceived neighbourhood quality and behaviour problems

S/PS/72. Using Examples from Individual and Lifespan Psychology describe the range of explanations provided by psychology for the differences found amongst people

S/PS/65. Cognitive development in children

S/PS/63. Children Obesity

C/PS/24. Autism Ï the Role of Developmental Psychology in Understanding and Supporting the Development of ChildrenĖs Cognitive and Social Abilities

P/PS/117. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children

S/PS/61. Describe and discuss VygotskyĖs theory of cognitive development in children

P/PS/106. Impacts of childhood experiences on our adult lives

P/PS/105. How does altruism evolve? Critical review of group selection theory

S/PS/57. Acquisition of verb inflections in the past tense in children

P/PS/82. Use of play in autistic children’s development

P/PS/67. Disclosure of sexual abuse in children

C/PS/18. Criticism of Piagets theory of cognitive development

C/PS/17. Evolutionary explanations of why we look after children.

S/PS/47. Compare and contrast two major approaches in cognitive development

S/PS/43. An Evaluation of Child Observational Methods

S/PS/34. What is the 'strange situation' and what can it tell us about early close relationships?

S/PS/32. Can Gilligan's claim that women have a distinctive moral voice be justified?

C/PS/14. The importance of exercise in modern lives through a psychological aspect

S/PS/31. Development of Numerical Estimation: A Critique of Siegler and Booth

P/PS/37. Cognitive development between the ages 4 and 8: logical reasoning

P/PS/36. Investigating child directed speech: ethical issues

P/PS/34. Universal stages in cognitive development

P/PS/24. Discuss the impact of Darwin's work on natural selection for the development of psychology as a science.

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